J udiciary is always regarded as the weakest branch of the constitution and never had much role in the functioning of the country but with the failure of the proper functioning of Executive, Legislature the importance of judiciary has become foremost. the three main areas are:
There are laws, Bye laws(local or an org) and subordinate laws. The Judiciary first sat in the Chamber of Princes in the parliament till it was shifted to the present building. Inaugurated on 28th Jan, 1950.
Judicial Review, Judicial Activism, Constitutional Adjudication
Judicial Activism: is nothing but the transgression of judiciary from its domain to other domain. Its move into the Legislative domain which was in 2007 rebutted by the speaker Somnath chatterjee himself. However the Activism is the need for the hour because the other 2 pillars have failed to deliver. Judicial activism is not allowed by Article 50. The constitution is based on the principle of separation of powers and protected by the theory of checks and balances. i.e. the one’s functions are checked by the other two. 25th amendment started it when it in a way made the Directive principles enforceable.
Activism relates to the PIL (Public Interest Litigation) and the entertaining complaints by the SC regarding the improper functioning of Legislature and executive. They have to see if the 2 other branches are functioning under the powers but they have to draw a line and are not supposed to advise them in matters of policy making.
Even though limited the court has still ability to review all the amendments and the presidential pardons too for their constitutional validity. Hence nowadays the role of judiciary is very big but a line must be drawn by it for its area of interference or with time this institution will be politicized too. Hence Judical reforms are the need of the hour
Hindi: is the official language of India according to Art. 343. But it also made the provision that English can also be used as an official language for another 15 years. Although it was extended after 15 years but all the documents, diktats, notices etc are in Hindi also. States are divided into categories: A(only hindi), B(either Hindi or english) and C (English only) for the language in which a public servant shall communicate.
Kendriya Hindi Samiti (20Lok Sabha + 10 Rajya Sabha) is the parliamentary committee which lays down the ways in which the Hindi can be made progressive.
Town official language implementation committee (TOLIC) is constituted in different cities.
Indira Gandhi Rajbhasha Awards is given to the dept for the implementation of the official language code.
Bhojpuri:is a language in the schedule 8 which is critical because of the link with the UPSC exams.
Hindi cannot be made compulsory for the court function and is optional to the states.
Jail manual amended after 87 years(Bihar)(in 2012-an example of government slowness in catching up with changing times): 1. Separate wing for separate convicts eg. The 18 to 21 aged will be kept separately to avoid their contact with the hardened criminals, 2. Photographs and finger prints of all the inmates will be taken, 3. Computer system shall be made so that every person is able to know the date his case is to be heard, 4. CCTV cameras, 5. Bandi darbar every 2 months to address the grievances of the people.
Soft jobs by prisoners entitled to wages. Acc to a 2007 order the govt. allowed the payment but according to phool kumara of tihar jail who helps the doctors in their department nothing was paid to her.* Judicial Activism, Use of Hindi,