* The topic will provide you the basic understanding of the various levels of judiciary after the Supreme court(SC) and the High Court(HC)
Hierarchy of Civil Courts
There is a hierarchy of Civil Courts in every state subordinate to their respective High Courts to administer civil law disputes. These civil courts are assigned a particular territory in a city or a town of the state and as well a particular pecuniary limit that is, the limit of the monetary value of the cases, which these courts may entertain.
Thus a particular civil court at a particular position in the hierarchy would be able to adjudicate civil cases only of a particular monetary value and further only from a particular territory.
The Hierarchy and the nomenclature of these civil courts vary in different states.
In Delhi for instance there are very broadly following levels of civil courts.
- District Judge & his collateral additional District Judges
- Senior Civil Judge
- Civil Judge
- Small Cause courts
Hierarchy Criminal Courts
- At the subordinate level there are broadly four levels of courts for any territory in a state. These are Executive Magistrates, Judicial Magistrates of Second Class, Judicial Magistrates of the first class (Metropolitan Magistrate in a Metropolitan area) and the courts of session in the increasing hierarchical order.
- Every state consists of many sessions divisions and every sessions division in turn consists of many districts. These districts may be further divided into sub-division.
- That apart, cities designated as metropolitan areas such as Bombay, Calcutta and Madras are considered as a separate sessions division and district for these metropolitan areas the machinery for administration of criminal justice is little different from that of the order areas of the state.
A person convicted by a Metropolitan Magistrate or an Assistant Session Judge or Magistrate of First class or of the Second class may appeal to court of sessions.*Hierarchy of Civil and Criminal Courts in India,